Bone marrow-derived cell mobilization with suppression of CXCR4 mediated by exosomes carrying myocardial microRNAs for repair of the infarcted heart

Lan Chen, Noboru Fukuda


As the capacities of proliferation and self-healing of cardiomyocytes in adults are limited, treatment of ischemic myocardium after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) led to a trend of investigations and research into human embryonic stem cells/induced pluripotent stem cells, cardiac stem/progenitor cells, bone marrow (BM)-derived cells including mesenchymal stem cells, and endothelial progenitor cells to promote cardiac neovascularization and repair of the ischemic injury to rescue the ischemic myocardium and function of the heart (1-3).