Non-coding RNA in cardiovascular disease: a general overview on microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs and circular RNAs
Non-coding ribonucleic acids (ncRNAs) are ubiquitous RNA molecules not translated into proteins and involved in different steps of gene regulation and transcription. Their dysregulation has been widely demonstrated in different forms of cardiovascular disorders. The present review discusses how ncRNAs [including microRNAs (miRNAs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs)] are involved in cardiovascular biology and diseases, highlighting their potential role as circulating diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, and therapeutic targets. The review also addresses future directions in research, covering issues still unresolved and the relevant factors limiting their widespread use in the clinical practice.